Due to the crisis in Ukraine, the largest number of aslyum seekers have come to Estonia in recent years. As of April 2024, according to the Estonian Police and Boarder Guard Board, 52 221 people have requested temporary protection. As of March 9th, 2022, by the order of the Estonian Government, Ukrainians who migrated to Estonia because of the war are able to apply for temporary protection. Out of all immigrants in 2023, 57% were of Ukrainian citizenship.

Estonia provides multiple mechanisms to support the health of Ukrainian refugees. Ukrainian refugees have the same access to health care as citizens of Estonia but this puts a pressure on the health care system.

In cooperation with the World Health Organization, Praxis conducted a document analysis to give an overview of the Estonian health care system in the context of the Ukrainian crisis in relation to refugees, migrants and asylum seekers. The final project report, which uses document analysis as input, will be published on the Praxis website in the summer of 2024.